Oracle Spatial GeoRaster

Driver short name


Build dependencies

Oracle client libraries

This driver supports reading and writing raster data in Oracle Spatial GeoRaster format (10g or later). The Oracle Spatial GeoRaster driver is optionally built as a GDAL plugin, but it requires Oracle client libraries.

When opening a GeoRaster, its name should be specified in the form:



user   = Oracle server user's name login
pwd    = user password
db     = Oracle server identification (database name)
schema = name of a schema
table  = name of a GeoRaster table (table that contains GeoRaster columns)
column = name of a column data type MDSYS.SDO_GEORASTER
where  = a simple where clause to identify one or multiples GeoRaster(s)
rdt    = name of a raster data table
rid    = numeric identification of one GeoRaster


geor:scott,tiger,demodb,table,column,"id = 1"

Note: do note use space around the field values and the commas.

Note: like in the last two examples, the database name field could be left empty (",,") and the TNSNAME will be used.

Note: If  the query results in more than one GeoRaster it will be treated as a GDAL metadata's list of sub-datasets (see below)

Driver capabilities

Supports CreateCopy()

This driver supports the GDALDriver::CreateCopy() operation

Supports Create()

This driver supports the GDALDriver::Create() operation

Supports Georeferencing

This driver supports georeferencing

Supports VirtualIO

This driver supports virtual I/O operations (/vsimem/, etc.)

Browsing the database for GeoRasters

By providing some basic information the GeoRaster driver is capable of listing the existing rasters stored on the server:

To list all the GeoRaster table on the server that belongs to that user name and database:

gdalinfo georaster:scott/tiger@db1

To list all the GeoRaster type columns that exist in that table:

gdalinfo georaster:scott/tiger@db1,table_name

That will list all the GeoRaster objects stored in that table.

gdalinfo georaster:scott/tiger@db1,table_name,georaster_column

That will list all the GeoRaster existing on that table according to a Where clause.

gdalinfo georaster:scott/tiger@db1,table_name,georaster_column,city='Brasilia'

Note that the result of those queries are returned as GDAL metadata sub-datasets, e.g.:

gdalinfo georaster:scott/tiger
# Driver: GeoRaster/Oracle Spatial GeoRaster
# Subdatasets:
# SUBDATASET_1_NAME=georaster:scott,tiger,,LANDSAT
# SUBDATASET_2_NAME=georaster:scott,tiger,,GDAL_IMPORT

Creation Options

Creation options can be specified in command-line tools using the syntax -co <NAME>=<VALUE> or by providing the appropriate arguments to GDALCreate() (C) or Driver.Create (Python). The following creation options are supported:

  • BLOCKXSIZE=value: The number of pixel columns per raster block.

  • BLOCKYSIZE=value: The number of pixel rows per raster block.

  • BLOCKBSIZE=value: The number of bands per raster block.

  • BLOCKING=value: Decline the use of blocking (NO) or request an automatic blocking size (OPTIMALPADDING).

  • SRID=value: Assign a specific EPSG projection/reference system identification to the GeoRaster.

  • INTERLEAVE=[BAND/LINE/PIXEL]: Band interleaving mode, BAND, LINE, PIXEL (or BSQ, BIL, BIP) for band sequential, Line or Pixel interleaving. Starting with GDAL 3.5, when copying from a source dataset with multiple bands which advertises a INTERLEAVE metadata item, if the INTERLEAVE creation option is not specified, the source dataset INTERLEAVE will be automatically taken into account, unless the COMPRESS creation option is specified.

  • DESCRIPTION=value: A simple description of a newly created table in SQL syntax. If the table already exist, this create option will be ignored, e.g.:

    gdal_translate -of georaster landsat_823.tif geor:scott/tiger@orcl,landsat,raster \
      -co INSERT="VALUES (1,'Scene 823',SDO_GEOR.INIT())"

  • INSERT=value: A simple SQL insert/values clause to inform the driver what values to fill up when inserting a new row on the table, e.g.:

    gdal_translate -of georaster landsat_825.tif geor:scott/tiger@orcl,landsat,raster \

  • COMPRESS=[JPEG-F/JP2-F/DEFLATE/NONE]: Compression options. The JPEG-F options is lossy, meaning that the original pixel values are changed. The JP2-F compression is lossless if JP2_QUALITY=100.

  • GENPYRAMID=value: Generate pyramid after a GeoRaster object have been loaded to the database. The content of that parameter must be the resampling method of choice NN (nearest neighbor) , BILINEAR, BIQUADRATIC, CUBIC, AVERAGE4 or AVERAGE16. If GENPYRLEVELS is not informed the PL/SQL function sdo_geor.generatePyramid will calculate the number of levels to generate.

  • GENPYRLEVELS=value: Define the number of pyramid levels to be generated. If GENPYRAMID is not informed the resample method NN (nearest neighbor) will apply.

  • GENSTATS=[TRUE/FALSE]: Defaults to FALSE. To generate statistics from the given rasters, set this value to TRUE. Default value is FALSE. This option must be present in order to generate the stats, otherwise, other GENSTATS options are ignored.

  • GENSTATS_SAMPLINGFACTOR=<integer>: Defaults to 1. Defines the number of cells skipped in both row and column dimensions when the statistics are computed. For example, when setting this value to 4, one-sixteenth of the cells are sampled. The higher the value, the less accurate the statistics are likely to be, but the more quickly they will be computed. Defaults to 1, which means that all cells are sampled.

  • GENSTATS_SAMPLINGWINDOW=<integer,integer,integer,integer>: This parameter identifies the upper-left (row, column) and lower-right (row, column) coordinates of a rectangular window, and raster space is assumed. The intersection of the MBR (minimum bounding rectangle) of the GeoRaster object in raster space is used for computing statistics. When this value is not specified, statistics are computed for the entire raster.

  • GENSTATS_HISTOGRAM=[TRUE/FALSE]: Defaults to FALSE. When this value is set to TRUE, a histogram will be computed and stored. Defaults to FALSE, so a histogram won't be generated.

  • GENSTATS_LAYERNUMBERS=[<integer,integer,...>/<integer>-<integer>]: Defines the numbers of the layers for which to compute the statistics. This can include numbers, ranges (indicated by hyphens), and commas to separate any combination of those. For example, '1,3-5,7', '1,3,6', '1-6'. If this value is not specified, statistics will be computed for all layers.

  • GENSTATS_USEBIN=[TRUE/FALSE]: Defaults to TRUE. Defaults to TRUE. Specifies whether or not to use a provided bin function (specified in GENSTATS_BINFUNCTION). When this value is set to TRUE, the bin function to be used follows the following sequence: (1) the bin function specified in GENSTATS_BINFUNCTION. (2) the bin function specified by the <binFunction> element in the GeoRaster XML metadata. (3) a dynamically generated bin function generated as follows: Min and max are the actual min and max values of the raster Numbins is defined as: * celldepth = 1, numbins = 2. * cellDepth = 2, numbins = 4. * cellDepth = 4, numbins = 8. * cellDepth >= 8, numbins = 256.

    When this value is set to FALSE, then the bin function to use is the one generated dynamically as previously described.

  • GENSTATS_BINFUNCTION=<integer,integer,integer,integer,integer>: An array whose element specify the bin type, total number of bins, first bin number, minimum cell value, and maximum cell value. Bin type must be linear (0). When this value is not specified, and GENSTATS_USEBIN is TRUE, then the bin function to use is as follows:

    1. A valid function defined in the GeoRaster metadata.

    2. The same bin function generated when GENSTATS_USEBIN is FALSE.

  • GENSTATS_NODATA=[TRUE/FALSE]: Defaults to FALSE. Specifies whether or not to compare each cell values with NODATA values defined in the metadata when computing statistics. When set to TRUE, all pixels with a NODATA value won't be considered. When set to FALSE, NODATA pixels will be considered as regular pixels.

    A NODATA value is used for cells whose values are either not known or meaningless

  • QUALITY=0-100: Defaults to 75. Quality compression option for JPEG ranging from 0 to 100.

  • JP2_QUALITY=<float_value,float_value,...>: Only if COMPRESS=JP2-f. Percentage between 0 and 100. A value of 50 means the file will be half-size in comparison to uncompressed data, 33 means 1/3, etc.. Defaults to 25 (unless the dataset is made of a single band with color table, in which case the default quality is 100).

  • JP2_REVERSIBLE=[YES/NO]: Only if COMPRESS=JP2-f. YES means use of reversible 5x3 integer-only filter, NO use of the irreversible DWT 9-7. Defaults to NO (unless the dataset is made of a single band with color table, in which case reversible filter is used).

  • JP2_RESOLUTIONS=<integer>: Only if COMPRESS=JP2-f. Number of resolution levels. Default value is selected such the smallest overview of a tile is no bigger than 128x128.

  • JP2_BLOCKXSIZE=<integer>: Defaults to 1024. Only if COMPRESS=JP2-f. Tile width.

  • JP2_BLOCKYSIZE=<integer>: Defaults to 1024. Only if COMPRESS=JP2-f. Tile height.

  • JP2_PROGRESSION=[LRCP/RLCP/RPCL/PCRL/CPRL]: Defaults to LRCP. Only if COMPRESS=JP2-f. Progression order.

  • NBITS=[1/2/4]: Sub byte data type.

  • SPATIALEXTENT=[TRUE/FALSE]: Defaults to TRUE. Generate Spatial Extents. The default value is TRUE, which means that this option only need to be set to force the Spatial Extent to remain as NULL. If EXTENTSRID is not set the Spatial Extent geometry will be generated with the same SRID as the GeoRaster object.

  • EXTENTSRID=value: SRID code to be used on the Spatial Extent geometry. If the table/column has already a spatial index, the value specified should be the same as the SRID on the Spatial Extents of the other existing GeoRaster objects, on which the spatial index is built.

  • OBJECTTABLE=[TRUE/FALSE]: Defaults to FALSE. To create RDT as SDO_RASTER object set to TRUE. Otherwise, the RDT will be created as regular relational tables. That does not apply for Oracle version older than 11.

Importing GeoRaster

During the process of importing raster into a GeoRaster object it is possible to give the driver a simple SQL table definition and also a SQL insert/values clause to inform the driver about the table to be created and the values to be added to the newly created row. The following example does that:

gdal_translate -of georaster Newpor.tif georaster:scott/tiger,,landsat,scene \
  -co "INSERT=VALUES(1,'West fields', SDO_GEOR.INIT())" \
  -co "BLOCKXSIZE=512" -co "BLOCKYSIZE=512" -co "BLOCKBSIZE=3" \

Note that the create option DESCRIPTION requires to inform table name (in bold). And column name (underlined) should match the description:

gdal_translate -of georaster landsat_1.tif georaster:scott/tiger,,landsat,scene \
  -co "INSERT=VALUES(1,'West fields', SDO_GEOR.INIT())"

If the table "landsat" exist, the option "DESCRIPTION" is ignored. The driver can only update one GeoRaster column per run of gdal_translate. Oracle create default names and values for RDT and RID during the initialization of the SDO_GEORASTER object but user are also able to specify a name and value of their choice.

gdal_translate -of georaster landsat_1.tif georaster:scott/tiger,,landsat,scene \
  -co "INSERT=VALUES(10,'Main building', SDO_GEOR.INIT('RDT', 10))"

If no information is given about where to store the raster the driver will create (if doesn't exist already) a default table named GDAL_IMPORT with just one GeoRaster column named RASTER and a table GDAL_RDT as the RDT, the RID will be given automatically by the server, example:

gdal_translate -of georaster input.tif “geor:scott/tiger@dbdemo”

Exporting GeoRaster

A GeoRaster can be identified by a Where clause or by a pair of RDT & RID:

gdal_translate -of gtiff geor:scott/tiger@dbdemo,landsat,scene,id=54 output.tif
gdal_translate -of gtiff geor:scott/tiger@dbdemo,st_rdt_1,130 output.tif

Cross schema access

As long as the user was granted full access the GeoRaster table and the Raster Data Table, e.g.:

% sqlplus scott/tiger
SQL> grant select,insert,update,delete on gdal_import to spock;
SQL> grant select,insert,update,delete on gdal_rdt to spock;

It is possible to an user access to extract and load GeoRaster from another user/schema by informing the schema name as showed here:


gdalinfo geor:spock/lion@orcl,scott.
gdalinfo geor:spock/lion@orcl,scott.gdal_import,raster,"t.raster.rasterid > 100"
gdalinfo geor:spock/lion@orcl,scott.gdal_import,raster,t.raster.rasterid=101


gdal_translate geor:spock/lion@orcl,scott.gdal_import,raster,t.raster.rasterid=101out.tif
gdal_translate geor:spock/lion@orcl,gdal_rdt,101 out.tif

Note: On the above example that accessing by RDT/RID doesn't need schame name as long as the users is granted full access to both tables.


gdal_translate -of georaster input.tif geor:spock/lion@orcl,scott.
gdal_translate -of georaster input.tif geor:spock/lion@orcl,scott.cities,image \
  -co INSERT="(1,'Rio de Janeiro',sdo_geor.init('cities_rdt'))"

General use of GeoRaster

GeoRaster can be used in any GDAL command line tool with all the available options. Like a image subset extraction or re-project:

 % gdal_translate -of gtiff geor:scott/tiger@dbdemo,landsat,scene,id=54 output.tif \
 -srcwin 0 0 800 600
 % gdalwarp -of png geor:scott/tiger@dbdemo,st_rdt_1,130 output.png
-t_srs EPSG:9000913

Two different GeoRaster can be used as input and output on the same operation:

% gdal_translate -of georaster geor:scott/tiger@dbdemo,landsat,scene,id=54 \
geor:scott/tiger@proj1,projview,image -co INSERT="VALUES (102, SDO_GEOR.INIT())"

Applications that use GDAL can theoretically read and write from GeoRaster just like any other format but most of then are more inclined to try to access files on the file system so one alternative is to create VRT to represent the GeoRaster description, e.g.:

% gdal_translate -of VRT geor:scott/tiger@dbdemo,landsat,scene,id=54 view_54.vrt
% openenv view_54.vrt

Standalone plugin compilation

Added in version 3.10.

While this driver may be built as part of a whole GDAL build, either in libgdal itself, or as a plugin, it is also possible to only build this driver as a plugin, against an already built libgdal.

The version of the GDAL sources used to build the driver must match the version of the libgdal it is built against.

For example, from a "build_georaster" directory under the root of the GDAL source tree:

cmake -S ../frmts/georaster -DCMAKE_PREFIX_PATH=/path/to/GDAL_installation_prefix -DOracle_ROOT=/path/to/instantclient_sdk_root
cmake --build .

Note that such a plugin, when used against a libgdal not aware of it, will be systematically loaded at GDAL driver initialization time, and will not benefit from deferred plugin loading capabilities <rfc-96>. For that, libgdal itself must be built with the CMake variable GDAL_REGISTER_DRIVER_GEOR_FOR_LATER_PLUGIN=ON set.