# Geotransform Tutorial¶

## Introduction to Geotransforms:¶

A geotransform is an affine transformation from the image coordinate space (row, column), also known as (pixel, line) to the georeferenced coordinate space (projected or geographic coordinates).

A geotransform consists in a set of 6 coefficients:

`GT(0)`

x-coordinate of the upper-left corner of the upper-left pixel.`GT(1)`

w-e pixel resolution / pixel width.`GT(2)`

row rotation (typically zero).`GT(3)`

y-coordinate of the upper-left corner of the upper-left pixel.`GT(4)`

column rotation (typically zero).`GT(5)`

n-s pixel resolution / pixel height (negative value for a north-up image).## Transformation from image coordinate space to georeferenced coordinate space:¶

```
X_geo = GT(0) + X_pixel * GT(1) + Y_line * GT(2)
Y_geo = GT(3) + X_pixel * GT(4) + Y_line * GT(5)
```

Note that the pixel/line coordinates in the above are from (0.0,0.0) at the top left corner of the top left pixel to (width_in_pixels,height_in_pixels) at the bottom right corner of the bottom right pixel. The pixel/line location of the center of the top left pixel would therefore be (0.5,0.5).

## In case of north up images:¶

`GT(2)`

, `GT(4)`

coefficients are zero.`GT(1)`

, `GT(5)`

is the pixel size.`GT(0)`

, `GT(3)`

position is the top left corner of the top left pixel of the raster.